This is truly amazing. The following article examines how this image was discovered and what it can tell us about Henry VIII’s second consort and the Virgin Queen’s mother, Anne Boleyn.
Artigo escrito por Roland Hui e traduzido para o Tudor Brasil.
Um dos grandes tesouros do Castelo de Windsor é o Livro Negro da Jarreteira. Encadernado em couro preto – por isso seu nome – ele contém a história, regulamentos e cerimônias dos ilustres Cavaleiros da Ordem da Jarreteira, fundada pelo rei Eduardo III em 1348.
Criado em 1534, o Livro Negro é atribuído ao artista flamengo, Lucas Horenbout (ou Hornebolte) que era ativo como iluminador dos manuscritos e pintor de retratos em miniaturas na corte inglesa, da década de 1520 à 1540.
Livro Negro da Jarreteira, atribuído a Lucas Horenbout. Castelo de Windsor.
Como o Livro Negro foi criado no reinado de Henrique VIII, o Rei aparece em destaque no documento. Enquanto seus predecessores reais, Eduardo III e Henrique VII tiveram seus espaços no livro, foi dado preeminência ao segundo monarca da dinastia Tudor. Ele aparece duas vezes…
This is a good article by Tudor Brasil that examines Thomas Cromwell’s role in the English Reformation as well as the obstacles he faced and the pragmatic approach he was often forced to take.
If you don’t know Portuguese and wish to read it in your native language, just open this up in Google and you will be given the option of the translator.
Thomas Cromwell nasceu em meados de 1485, em Putney, um distrito ao sudoeste de Londres, na Inglaterra. Ele vinha de uma família modesta, sendo filho de um ferreiro e dono de cervejaria. Pouco se sabe sobre seus primeiros anos de vida. Em tenra idade ele deixou a Inglaterra, conseguindo carreira na Europa continental, atuando como um soldado na Itália, e trabalhando depois para um comerciante local. Em suas viagens ele se familiarizou com vários idiomas, além de ter trabalhado como um agente para os comerciantes ingleses em Antuérpia, época em que foi notado pelo teólogo e humanista, Erasmo de Rotterdam, na corte papal, em 1510. Foi neste período que ele adquiriu uma edição do Novo Testamento de Erasmo. Cromwell estudou direito no continente, e retornou à Inglaterra em meados de 1515, onde desposou uma mulher de nome Elizabeth Wyckes.
Em meados de 1520, ele passou a trabalhar para o Cardeal Thomas Wolsey –…
This is a great article written by Lalo Dagach. If you are new to his channel or podcast, I highly recommend it. He has interesting conversations with people from all sides of the political spectrum. He is fair and balanced and also factual when it comes to topics like this -something that is sorely needed in our day and age in which denial is sought after by both extremes.
I admit that I did not know much about this subject until a few years ago. It is pretty sad to see that this is still not recognized as a genocide by many countries but given that the UN just elected Saudi Arabia to head the Human Rights commission and Erdogan extending his term, I am not that surprised.
I find it awful that Cenk and his other co-hosts at the TYT network continue to bypass this subject. This is a good article for anyone who wants to know more about this event (Lalo provides good links) and also learn more of TYT’s hypocrisy.
Cenk Uygur, host of the online show The Young Turks, has a dark history of both denying the genocide of the Armenian people, and subsequently naming his show after its Turkish perpetrators.
The Armenian Genocide
In 1908, under the Ottoman Empire, a political group named the Young Turks waged a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II forcing him out of political office. By 1915, this political party would become the perpetrators of what has come to be known as the Armenian Genocide, in which up to 1.5 million were estimated to have been systematically dislocated, tortured, and massacred. This event culminated on 24 April 1915, when Young Turk members arrested, and later killed, 250 various Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. The evidence confirming the Armenian Genocide is not only abundant, but also dishearteningly tragic.
On the 3rd of April 1578, Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, daughter of Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland and Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, was buried at the lady chapel in Westminster Abbey. Despite being referred by her late half-brother, James V of Scotland, as his “natural sister”, she was given the full honors of a Princess.
Margaret was the mother of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots who was suspected of his mother. Margaret initially suspected her as well until she changed her mind, and took her daughter-in-law’s side.
After Mary Stuart became Elizabeth I’s captive, Margaret and her husband, Matthew Stewart, the Earl of Lennox, worked tirelessly to secure their grandson, James VI, King of Scots’ future. After his regent was assassinated, the Earl was sent to rule on his grandson’s behalf but he too was assassinated.
Margaret spent her last seven years securing Protestant noble alliances. Despite being Mary I of England’s best friend and confidant, she always made sure not to be too partisan. When Elizabeth became Queen, some of her close associates blamed Margaret Douglas for Elizabeth’s imprisonment during her half-sister’s reign. There were rumors that Mary wished to do the same thing her half-brother had done by overriding their father’s will, taking Elizabeth out of the line of succession and naming Margaret her heir instead. Whether this is true or not, Mary decided not to repeat Edward VI’s mistake, leaving their father’s will unchanged which enabled a peaceful transition of power -that was much needed in England- for Elizabeth to become Queen.
Nevertheless, Elizabeth’s councilors succeeded in making their mistress paranoid. It didn’t help that Margaret like their Tudor ancestress and her namesake, Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, had ambitions of her own. Although Elizabeth I had pushed for a union between Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots, she decided against it, and instead proposed her favorite, Robert Dudley -going so far as to ennoble him and propose to her royal cousin that the three of them live at court.
For obvious reasons, Mary didn’t like this idea, and decided to accept her cousin Margaret and her son’s offer instead. When Elizabeth found out that Henry Stewart and his father were headed off to Scotland, she put his mother under house arrest. The wedding still went ahead but the newlyweds soon realized how mismatched they were. Henry was described as arrogant and uppity, having expected more than the decorative title of King Consort, while Mary’s only interest in him was his bloodline and his availability to provide her with heirs.
After Darnley died and she married Bothwell, her enemies moved against her, forcing her to give up her crown. With Bothwell out of the way and having miscarried twins, she felt hopeless. She wasn’t getting any sympathy after she fled to England, hoping she’d find support from Elizabeth there, from her mother-in-law. After a few years had passed, Margaret’s view of the former Queen of Scots changed. But there was little that Margaret could do for her daughter-in-law. As far as she knew it, the future lay with her grandson. She envisioned that through him, she’d be triumphant. She was right. Before she died, she commissioned the “Lennox jewel” which portrayed her grandson as the King of Scots and the future King of England. That heart shaped shaped locket best describes her as someone “who hopes still constantly with patience shall obtain victory in their claim”. And she did prove to be the most patient in the end.
Donating to the Anglican church and Elizabeth I’s top councilors, as well as endearing herself to her favorite, the Earl of Leicester, Margaret assured that her legacy would remain. On February 1578, she received the Earl on her house. After he left, she fell ill. Knowing it might be the end, she wrote her last testament days later on the twenty sixth still in “perfect mind” and “good health of body”. In it, she asked the body of her son younger son Charles (who had died years before leaving only a daughter, Arbella), be buried with her at Westminster. She died a week and a half later in March 10th, and on April 3, she had a funeral worthy of a Princess.
Margaret Douglas as England’s first Christian Queen Regnant, Mary I, has often been neglected in history. While she doesn’t suffer from the over-deification of Elizabeth or the vilification of Mary I (and in this she is perhaps the most lucky of Tudor women), she’s suffered from neglect. Not to mention in fiction where she’s especially absent. Recently though, she has appeared on Reign season four where she is portrayed as a doting but domineering mother, who is equal in ambition and political aptitude as her royal cousin, Queen Elizabeth. While Reign is one of the least accurate series to date, the way Margaret is portrayed is not completely false.
While she was never a queen nor title holder in her own right, she made history in her own way by ensuring the continuation of her bloodline, and securing her oldest grandchild’s inheritance. She was a woman who knew how to play the dangerous game of politics, and got away with each of her schemes. Following the moral code of the day, she used her position as wife and mother to get ahead, and survive the Tudor court -something that wasn’t easily achieved by anyone, let alone a woman.
Buried with the founders of the Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII, Margaret Beaufort and Elizabeth of York, Margaret Douglas sent a powerful message: That it would be her line which would endure, ruling as Kings and Queens of all the British Isles after Elizabeth was gone.
Some of her contemporaries described her as “a lady of most pious character, invincible spirit, and matchless steadfastness … mighty in virtue … mightier in lineage” and a “progenitor of princes” in her son Darnley and in her grandson, James VI of Scotland and I of England.
An excellent article on Marie Antoinette who was born on the 2nd of November 1755. She has gone down in history as “Madame Deficit” and for allegedly saying “let them eat cake” but as the author of this article points out, a lot of her reputation is he product of propaganda.
Viena, 2 de novembro de 1755. Maria Teresa, rainha de Hungria por herança e imperatriz do Sacro Império Romano por casamento, entrava em trabalho de parto pela 15ª vez em sua vida. Aos 38 anos, ela e seu marido, o imperador Francisco I, já tinham produzido quatro arquiduques e dez arquiduquesas (das quais sete sobreviveram até aquele ano, uma taxa bastante elevada, se considerarmos os padrões de mortalidade infantil da época). Dessa forma, a experiência do parto não se constituía em novidade alguma para aquela soberana. Instalada no Palácio Hofburg, onde os Habsburgo residiam desde o final do século XIII, seus aposentos ficavam no primeiro andar da conhecida ala Leopoldina, que hoje fazem parte dos escritórios do presidente austríaco. Ali nasceu uma das personalidades mais famosas da história ocidental, destinada a viver momentos de extrema alegria e outros de profunda tristeza. Quem, naquele Dia de…
Em 5 de junho de 1998, milhares de crianças ao redor do mundo foram conferir nos cinemas o lançamento de “Mulan”, animação da Disney sobre a história da personagem homônima, que se travestiu de homem e foi para a batalha no lugar de seu pai e acabou salvando toda a China. Assim como o filme “Anastásia”, da Fifth Century Fox (1997), “Mulan” vem encantando gerações ao longo dos anos. Contudo, poucos sabem que, assim como a filha do czar Nicolau II, a encantadora guerreira também pode ter existido e sua verdadeira história é bem mais interessante (e triste) do que o filme da Disney nos faz acreditar. Hua Mulan é uma das guerreiras mais lendárias da China Antiga. Apesar de sua fama, não existe prova arqueológica de que ela realmente viveu. Entretanto, contos sobre suas ações heroicas se encontram preservados num texto antigo, bastante conhecido por…
Welsh and English history is littered with romantic figures, gallant and brave warriors blessed with an innate sense of chivalry and morals that ensure their name lives on in the annals of history. The embodiment of such a character is undoubtedly King Arthur, the mythical Prince whom all later Kings would strive to replicate. Scores of medieval men, inspired by the many retellings of Arthur and his chivalrous Knights, equally endeavoured to adopt such personas in an attempt fulfil their lives according to the sacrament of chivalry. Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur was one such 14th century man, blessed with wit, romanticism and martial talent as well as the noble background needed to be considered a chivalric knight.
Son of an Outlaw
Owain ap Maredudd was born around 1400, the same year his father Maredudd’s cousin Owain Glyndwr raised a rebellion against English rule and it is a possibility…
Life is hard. It will always be hard, so sometimes the best remedy is to dream, knowing that it is a dream and that when you wake up, things will go back to being shitty.
Dreams are what make life tolerable -and sometimes can motivate someone to move forward. Other times, it makes them stagnant and stuck in one place. And this happens very often when people realize that their dreams are just that: dreams. Dreams can give us a little push, but as long as we remain realistic about our goals.
Anne wasn’t a great person, she wasn’t a marvelous person, but neither was she the devil incarnate that Nicholas Sander wrote of.
Yet, the image that we’ve grown up with has been largely due in part to fiction and as weird as this sounds, its help me when I have to deal with angry customers, asshole managers and people who just want to give someone a bad day because their day has gone bad.
I don’t know if Anne was really a victim, and she was forced into that position after she saw that she was gaining nothing by saying ‘no’ to Henry and giving him tons of excuses. She is dead and unless her ghost were to visit me or I’d go back in time, I will never know. I can make inferences based on her actions and the primary sources available but that is it.
What I do know is that the image that I saw in TV and movies, have pushed me forward in ways I couldn’t imagine and didn’t notice until now.
It could be that as much as I didn’t like how some people took fiction seriously, I took comfort in how she was depicted, as this strong and head of her times woman. Even though she wasn’t, the lessons she taught me through her actions in fiction were valuable.
When customers want to give me a rough time and be mean, I smile and keep on smiling. Not a smile of gratitude but a mysterious smile. A smile that looks so genuinely but also so sarcastic. That says I am not going to let anyone bring me down, and even if you want to say speak behind my back (in the case of my co-workers and managers) I will keep on moving forward because that is my nature. And as the historical Anne was once reputed to say “let them grumble, that is how it is going to be”; so I shall say through my smile. My mischievous eyes, secretly glad when something doesn’t go well for them.
“I care nothing for Catherine, I rather see her hung than acknowledge her as my mistress.” -Anne Boleyn in “The Tudors”
In reality, while she did say something along those lines, the wording was a little different. The meaning was all the same. She could lose control at times and that is how I feel at times; when I feel that things are taking too long for me, when I am looked down upon. And for a while I had a poor-me attitude of crying and whining about it, but now I could care less. Because this is how things are, and how things are likely to be until they get better, so I must make the most of it by not giving up, not crumbling down but instead show them how much I enjoy their petty games and they won’t bring me down.
Sometimes that is all we can do, and being realistic is not being conformist but rather knowing where your limitations are and working around those limitations to get what you want. And we will make mistakes along the road, that is normal; the trick is not over-thinking them too much, and get over them. Accept that we’ve screwed up and move on. Keep on trying and never fall into the poor-me syndrome because once someone falls there, it is hard to get back up.
Having trouble in the work-place is nothing new, but rather than cry, I look at people in the eye. Give the best effort that I can give, and push myself forward to be courteous even when I don’t have to be, and as the historical Anne said in one of her mottos “let them grumble”, that doesn’t matter. Reality is what reality is. All I can do is not let myself be defeated, not fall into a poor-me attitude and instead raise my head up… high like Anne (Genevive Bujold) taught her daughter in the classic Anne of a Thousand Days from 1969.
The second season of the Tudors had some of Natalie Dormer’s greatest one-liners for Anne, and although she appeared arrogant, she excelled in what she did. Given the position she was in, she knew that the people around her would complain no matter what. If her predecessor did the same mistakes, because she was royal, no one would say a thing. Or maybe they would but not make as much drama. Anne wasn’t the people’s favorite, she wasn’t the court’s favorite and she knew what people said (and thought) behind her back. She was a whore, stupid, she shouldn’t be there but did she let that deter her? No, she smirked, she held her head up high as if saying “F*ck you guys. I will keep on moving forward”. And the actress captured her bravery perfectly during her execution. Her speech was copied straight out of the historical records.
So remember: keep moving forward. Let the idiots grumble. It will be what they will be. You are the makers of your own destiny. Don’t let anyone hold your back, and don’t hold yourself back.
28 APRIL 1603: Elizabeth I’s Funerary Procession took place. She was carried from Whitehall to Westminster Abbey where she was laid to rest on the Lady Chapel.
“It was an impressive occasion: the hearse was drawn by four horses hung with black velvet, surmounted by a life-sized wax effigy of the late Queen, dressed in her state robes and crown, an orb and scepter in its hands; over it was a canopy of state supported by six earls.” (Weir)
The procession was followed by a palfrey led by the Master of the Horse and the Marchioness of Northampton who acted as chief mourner. The other ladies followed her in nun-like mourning, black clothes, hoods and cloaks along with other people who were also wearing black. These included lords, councilors, courtiers, heralds, servants and 276 commons.
In spite of the solemnity of the mourners, bright colors were seen in the form of colorful banners, trumpets and the Queen’s coffin which was covered in rich purple cloth topped with her effigy holding unto a scepter and with a crown on her head.
“Westminster” Chronicler John Stow wrote, “was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy.” After the Mass had ended, her household servants broke their white staves and tossed them at her tomb to symbolize the end of their allegiance.
Truly, it was a sight to see and also a reminder than it was the end of an era. Gone were the days of the Tudors, now it would be the Stuarts who reigned.
She was buried at the Lady Chapel where the first Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I’s grandfather, also lay with his wife and mother. Three years later, King James I decided to rebury her in a different vault and honor her memory by building a magnificent burial. Unfortunately, this monument didn’t include an effigy of the Queen’s sister, Mary I who was reburied with her.
The plaque on her tomb reads the following:
“Consorts both in throne and grave, here we rest two sisters, Elizabeth & Mary, in hope of our resurrection.”
Bess remains one of the most celebrated monarchs in history. She became Queen when she was twenty five years old. On receiving the news of her sister’s death and given her ring, she quoted one of the psalms, stating that this was the Lord’s will and it was beautiful before her eyes. Her reign lasted forty-four years, outlasting that of her father and the other Tudors.
Known as “Glorianna”, “Good Queen Bess” and “the Virgin Queen” for her refusal to marry, she also had one colony in North America named after her. She is the third longest female monarch in English history and to some, one of the most important women in history. In his biography on Elizabeth I, David Starkey says that what differentiated her from her sister was that while Mary “aimed for a heavenly crown; Elizabeth aimed for an earthly one.”