Alliances & Marriage Treaty: Charles V’s visit to England (1522), Part II

Henry VIII Charles V KOA Mary Charles visit to England

On the 11th of June Charles and Henry VIII traveled to Windsor Castle. They stayed there for nine nights until they departed on the 21st, setting for Farnham.

The first four days on Windsor were uneventful. On the 16th things became more interesting when the two monarchs discussed the terms of the treaty between Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and England. Although this meeting was merely a formality since the treaty was published that same day.

Mary Tudor and Charles V portraits
Mary Tudor as a child wearing a brooch/insignia that says Emperor, symbolizing her betrothal to Charles (pictured on the right).

On the 19th, Henry and Charles got straight to business, and discussed another matter and signed another treaty.

“This one was to remain secret” Patrick William wrote in his biography on Katharine of Aragon, “for it committed them to the marriage of Charles to Princess Mary within eight years.”

In her biography on Mary I, Linda Porter explains that this marriage treaty stipulated that in the event that Katharine and Henry had no sons by the time this marriage came to be, the couple’s eldest son would inherit Henry VIII’s crowns, thus becoming King of England, lord of Ireland and King of France (in theory). In turn their second son, or daughter (if they couldn’t have any more sons) would inherit Spain and selected territories Charles ruled over.
Thirdly, since Mary and Charles were related in the second degree of affinity, the two monarchs would ask the pope for a special dispensation. And lastly, the matter of her dowry was settled and Charles promised that he would stay true to his betrothed and honor every part of the treaty.

Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal and Archbishop of York, Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIII’s right hand man at the time Charles’ visited England.

On the 20th, Cardinal and Archbishop of York, Thomas Wolsey, convened a legatine court and asked the two monarchs to reaffirm their agreements with one another over the marriage treaty. The event had many important witnesses, among them Henry, Count of Nassau, Imperial Chancellor Gattinara, Pedro Ruiz de la Mota, Bishop of Palancia, Thomas Ruthall, Bishop of Durham, the Earls of Shrewsbury and Worcester, George Talbot and  Charles Percy, Cuthbert Tunstall, the Bishop of  London, and Sir Thomas Boleyn.

There is no need for spoilers beyond this point because we all know how this turned out. Henry VIII didn’t want to pay the full dowry after he felt betrayed by Charles V during their joint enterprise against France, and Charles V used this excuse to break the marriage treaty and marry his other first cousin, someone whom he didn’t have to wait for her to grow up because they were almost the same age, the Portuguese Infanta, Isabel of House Avis.

We do not know how Mary felt. Given that she was a child at the time the marriage broke, and her father felt betrayed yet again by her maternal family, she probably didn’t brood too much of it (if she did at all) and instead focused on her studies. Her mother would have been another case entirely as Katharine would have wanted both nations to be tied together against what she perceived to be their natural enemy, France. Had things gone differently, Mary’s situation would have been like Matilda, although probably less bellicose. As it happened, Mary would go on to be betrothed to countless more kings and princes and then when she was a bastard, minor royals in an effort to cement an alliance, but due to her gender, her lineage and her religious affiliation nothing would come out of it.

In the meantime, both parties were happy celebrating their alliance and the future marriage between Charles and Mary. Just as his daughter had previously showed off her artistic talents to their Spanish guests, Henry VIII did the same when he wrote to Charles an elaborate letter where he expressed deep gratitude for his arrival, and the amicability he’d showed to his ministers, including Cardinal Wolsey.

Sources:

  • Porter, Linda. The Myth of Bloody Mary. St. Martin Press. 2008.
  • Whitelock, Anna. Mary Tudor: Princess, Bastard, Queen. Random House. 2010.
  • Williams, Patrick. Katharine of Aragon: The Tragic Story of Henry VIII’s First Unfortunate Wife. Amberley. 2013.
  • Fox, Julia. Sister Queens: The Noble Tragic Lives of Katherine of Aragon and Juana, Queen of  Castile. Ballantine Books. 2012.
  • Weir, Alison. Henry VIII: The King and his Court. Ballantine Books. 2001.

 

Her father’s daughter: Katharine of Aragon ‘Humble and Loyal’ scolds the Pope

Catherine of Aragon purple six wives
If you still think Katherine of Aragon was submissive, here is one of her most ardent letters to the pope, Clement VII dated December 17th, 1530:

“Most Holy Father:

The great need in which my troubled affairs stand require Your Holiness’ redress and help (upon which the service of God and my own response and the salvation of my soul, as well as that of the king, my Lord, depend). This obliges me to implore Your Holiness that I may be heard on that very account.
Even had I an ordinary claim to ask what I have so long and so fervently prayed for, and so frequently urged, how much more is it now evident that the justice of my cause is so great before God, who knows my perfect sincerity and innocence. I trust that Your Holiness will see that God, in His great mercy, wishes that the decision be published.
I believe that Your Holiness will understand that there is no learned or conscientious person acknowledging the power and authority of the Apostolic See who does not agree and maintain that the marriage between the King, my Lord, and me is indissoluble, since God alone can separate us. I cannot then do less than complain that my petitions … should have been so long disregarded by Your Holiness.
One thing alone that comforts me in the midst of my tribulations, is to believe that God wishes to punish me for my sins in this world, and that therefore Your Holiness, His vicar on earth, will not forgive me. I humbly beg Your Holiness to have pity on me and accept as though I had been in Purgatory the penance I have already endured for so many years, thus delivering me from the pains, torments and sudden fears to which I am daily exposed and which are so great and so numerous that I could not possibly bear them had not God given me strength to endure … I am convinced that God, n whom all my hopes are concentrated will not abandon me in this cause in which justice is so obviously with me.
The remedy lies in [issuing] the sentence and determination of my cause without any delay. Any other course short of that will do more harm than good, as appears quite evident from the evils which the delay has already produced. Should the sentence be further deferred, Your Holiness will appreciate that the delay will be the cause of a new hell [upon earth], the remedy for which will entail more disastrous measures than have ever yet been tried.
I have been informed that my enemies demand a new delay. I beg Your Holiness not to grant it to them, for in doing so, the greatest possible injury will be done to me, convinced as I am that everything proposed by those people is for the worst, as it might come to pass justice would suffer through it, and that from the Purgatory in which I now find myself I should be cast down into a temporal hell, from the bottom of which I should be continually raising my voice to God and complaining of the tiny amount of pity and mercy that Your Holiness has granted me.
Again I beg and entreat Your Holiness not to allow any further delays in this trial but immediately to pronounce full sentence in the most expeditious way. Until this is done I shall not cease begging Your Holiness, as did the Samaritan woman to Jesus Christ, on whom her remedy depended.
Some days ago Miguel Mai, the ambassador of his Imperial Majesty in Rome and my solicitor in this case wrote to say taht Your Holiness had promised him to renew the brief which Your Holiness issued at Bologna and another one commanding the King my Lord to dismiss and cast away from this woman with whom he lives.
On hearing this, these ‘good people’ who have placed and still keep the King, my Lord, in this awkward position, began to give way, considering themselves lost. May God forgive whoever it was who was the cause of the briefs not being delivered, for the news of the preparation alone introduced a most marked improvement in my case; besides which, had the potion, though disagreeable to their mouths, been administered at the right time, that which I hope Your Holiness keeps in store for them would have been comparatively sweet.
I am, therefore, deeply grieved at the injury which was inflicted upon me by the withdrawal of the promised briefs but I bear all this with patience waiting for the remedy to the evils of which I complain. This can be no other, I repeat, than the sentence that I am expecting every day and hour.
One thing I should like Your Highness to be aware of, namely that my plea is not against the King, my Lord, but against the inventors and abettors of this cause. I trust so much in the natural goodness and virtues of the king, my Lord, that if I could only have him two months with me, as he used to be, I alone should be powerful enough to make him forget the past; but as they know this to be true they do not let him live with me.
These are my real enemies who wage such constant war against me; some of them intending that the bad advice they gave the king should not become public, though they have already been well paid for it, and others that they may rob and plunder as much as they can, thus endangering the estate of the king, my Lord, to the risk of his honor and the eternal perdition of his soul. These are the people from whom spring the threats and bravadoes preferred against Your Holiness, they are the sole inventors of them, not the king, my Lord.
It is, therefore, urgent that Your Holiness put a very strong bit in their mouths, which is no other than the sentence.
With that the tongues of the bad counselors will be stopped and their hope of mischief vanish; the greedy thieves will no longer devour him on whom they have been feeding all this time; they will set him at liberty, and he will become as dutiful a son of Your Holiness as he was in former times. This to me would be the greatest charity that ever Your Holiness bestowed on a human being; it will restore peace and happiness among the Christian princes, and set a good example to the whole of Christendom.”

It took Clement several more letters and pressure from Katharine and her nephew, to issue a threat that he would excommunicate Henry if he didn’t leave Anne Boleyn. But by the time it came, Katherine was already frustrated and too angry with him, and even Chapuys recognized that it came too late.

This is just one of many examples that show that Katharine of Aragon was her father’s daughter. She could be cordial and humble like her mother would seem at times, and win over the people with her sweetness but as Julia Fox noted in her biography of her and Juana, appearances can be deceiving. During her political limbo, after her mother died and her future as queen of England seemed uncertain, she became very observant and to save her from further penury, her father appointed her his ambassador. No other woman before her had been granted such honor, let alone a Princess. As her father’s ambassador, she learned a great deal about the machinations of the court and foreign policy.
Katharine had also been schooled in canon and civic law so in her view, there was no other better person to scold the pope than her. And as her father, she always presented herself as a loyal daughter of the church, humble in public but defiant in private, and subtle in her threats.
Sources:
  • Williams, Patrick. Katharine of Aragon: The Tragic Story of Henry VIII’s First Unfortunate Wife. Amberley. 2013.
  • Fox, Julia. Sister Queens: The Noble Tragic Lives of Katherine of Aragon and Juana, Queen of  Castile. Ballantine Books. 2012.

 

What I learned from Anne Boleyn in Fiction & History

what anne boleyn taught me 3

What I learned from Anne Boleyn:

Life is hard. It will always be hard, so sometimes the best remedy is to dream, knowing that it is a dream and that when you wake up, things will go back to being shitty.

Dreams are what make life tolerable -and sometimes can motivate someone to move forward. Other times, it makes them stagnant and stuck in one place. And this happens very often when people realize that their dreams are just that: dreams. Dreams can give us a little push, but as long as we remain realistic about our goals.

Anne Boleyn Wolf Hall Purple Dress

Anne wasn’t a great person, she wasn’t a marvelous person, but neither was she the devil incarnate that Nicholas Sander wrote of.

Yet, the image that we’ve grown up with has been largely due in part to fiction and as weird as this sounds, its help me when I have to deal with angry customers, asshole managers and people who just want to give someone a bad day because their day has gone bad.

Anne Boleyn Tudors Execution

I don’t know if Anne was really a victim, and she was forced into that position after she saw that she was gaining nothing by saying ‘no’ to Henry and giving him tons of excuses. She is dead and unless her ghost were to visit me or I’d go back in time, I will never know. I can make inferences based on her actions and the primary sources available but that is it.
What I do know is that the image that I saw in TV and movies, have pushed me forward in ways I couldn’t imagine and didn’t notice until now.

It could be that as much as I didn’t like how some people took fiction seriously, I took comfort in how she was depicted, as this strong and head of her times woman. Even though she wasn’t, the lessons she taught me through her actions in fiction were valuable.

When customers want to give me a rough time and be mean, I smile and keep on smiling. Not a smile of gratitude but a mysterious smile. A smile that looks so genuinely but also so sarcastic. That says I am not going to let anyone bring me down, and even if you want to say speak behind my back (in the case of my co-workers and managers) I will keep on moving forward because that is my nature. And as the historical Anne was once reputed to say “let them grumble, that is how it is going to be”; so I shall say through my smile. My mischievous eyes, secretly glad when something doesn’t go well for them.

Anne Boleyn and Henry

“I care nothing for Catherine, I rather see her hung than acknowledge her as my mistress.” -Anne Boleyn in “The Tudors”

In reality, while she did say something along those lines, the wording was a little different. The meaning was all the same. She could lose control at times and that is how I feel at times; when I feel that things are taking too long for me, when I am looked down upon. And for a while I had a poor-me attitude of crying and whining about it, but now I could care less. Because this is how things are, and how things are likely to be until they get better, so I must make the most of it by not giving up, not crumbling down but instead show them how much I enjoy their petty games and they won’t bring me down.

Sometimes that is all we can do, and being realistic is not being conformist but rather knowing where your limitations are and working around those limitations to get what you want. And we will make mistakes along the road, that is normal; the trick is not over-thinking them too much, and get over them. Accept that we’ve screwed up and move on. Keep on trying and never fall into the poor-me syndrome because once someone falls there, it is hard to get back up.

Anne Boleyn AOAD Tudors

Having trouble in the work-place is nothing new, but rather than cry, I look at people in the eye. Give the best effort that I can give, and push myself forward to be courteous even when I don’t have to be, and as the historical Anne said in one of her mottos “let them grumble”, that doesn’t matter. Reality is what reality is. All I can do is not let myself be defeated, not fall into a poor-me attitude and instead raise my head up high like Anne (Genevive Bujold) taught her daughter in the classic Anne of a Thousand Days from 1969.

Anne Boleyn Marques of Pembroke

The second season of the Tudors had some of Natalie Dormer’s greatest one-liners for Anne, and although she appeared arrogant, she excelled in what she did. Given the position she was in, she knew that the people around her would complain no matter what. If her predecessor did the same mistakes, because she was royal, no one would say a thing. Or maybe they would but not make as much drama. Anne wasn’t the people’s favorite, she wasn’t the court’s favorite and she knew what people said (and thought) behind her back. She was a whore, stupid, she shouldn’t be there but did she let that deter her? No, she smirked, she held her head up high as if saying “F*ck you guys. I will keep on moving forward”. And the actress captured her bravery perfectly during her execution. Her speech was copied straight out of the historical records.

So remember: keep moving forward. Let the idiots grumble. It will be what they will be. You are the makers of your own destiny. Don’t let anyone hold your back, and don’t hold yourself back.